Ceramic tile is the most suitable, universal covering for a kitchen interior, a classic facing material. It has a beautiful appearance, blends well with other finishes, fits both on the floor and on the walls. Modern tiles for the kitchen come in a variety of shapes, sizes, colors, textures - in the form of large plates, small tiles, with a wood texture or “under the brick”, in the form of diamonds or rectangular, monochromatic or with a pattern.
Pros and cons of ceramic coating
Like any material used for interior decoration, ceramics have their pros and cons.
- hygiene - floor, wall is convenient, easy to wash;
- moisture resistance - does not pass water, does not absorb foreign smells, is not subject to a mold, fungal defeats;
- environmental friendliness - as a part only sand, various types of color clay;
- strength - hot-pressed porcelain tile is not inferior in strength to concrete, it does not burn, does not melt at high temperature;
- durability - with high-quality styling, proper care, the coating will last for a long time, the protective layer does not allow the surface to scratch and fade;
- attractive appearance - correctly selected design will create a unique design;
- use together with other materials - combinations with the washing wall-paper, a laminate, a plaster stone, decorative plaster, etc. perfectly look.
- the floor covering with ceramic granite with a glossy texture strongly slides, which sometimes leads to injuries, therefore in wet rooms it is better to use a textured one;
- not all types are sufficiently resistant to physical damage, especially during transportation, falling metal objects;
- the surface is very cold, because under it is often mounted "warm floor";
- additional sound insulation is required;
- difficult, long time to lay their own.
How to choose tiles for the kitchen
Porcelain tile for the kitchen room will last not a year or two - if the coating is tired, it is quite difficult to change it. What to look for when choosing:
- the material should fit the chosen style of the interior, look harmonious in it by color, pattern, texture;
- It is desirable to acquire it by 7-10% more than it turns out when calculating the required amount - it can be beaten during transportation, and no one is insured against improper cutting;
- when buying, accepting, the goods must be inspected for cracks, chips, other defects - unscrupulous suppliers sometimes mix battered tiles with the whole, in the hope that they will not notice it;
- for an apron, borders, a design of a suitable size is chosen - different in width, height, color, flat or convex will also look different, which should be taken into account in advance;
- The flooring should be non-slip, and the wall, especially located in the area of the sink, gas stove - to be resistant to strong chemicals, frequent ingress of moisture, fat.
It is better to entrust the calculation of the number of tiles to a professional, if it is impossible to count them yourself several times, referring to the special literature.
For the floor
For the flooring of a spacious kitchen, a large tile is purchased, preferably two to three tones darker than the wall. The colors are preferred non-staining, the surface is matte, shock-resistant, non-slip, especially if children, animals, elderly people live in the apartment. The stylish interior will create a hexagonal, diamond-shaped, asymmetrical tiles.
Ceramics for the floor is marked with a special icon-trace - wall on the floor will last very little, it is marked with a palm symbol.
Dining, working area is often made out of different tiles, perfect material with protuberances. In a room with large dimensions, three-dimensional ceramics looks interesting, contrasting with the headset. Gloss is suitable for more cramped rooms, beautifully looks like a ceramic-tile with beveled edges.
If the walls are supposed to have sockets, switches, it is desirable to mount them in the center of the tiles so that the room looks aesthetically pleasing.
When the kitchen is small, the material of the apron needs to be combined in color, texture with table top, floor. If the table is wooden, then the apron will repeat the pattern of wood, stone - granite or marble. Small mosaic elements are allowed. In a larger room, the apron is made contrast.
The apron height is approximately 45-75 cm, so the tile is selected in accordance with this parameter so that the pattern is not broken. Porcelain tile with photodecora is difficult to set, but it looks great.
Types of tiles
All ceramic tile materials, according to the production method, are divided into five types:
- monokottura - passes pressing, single firing, used to cover the walls, floor. Frost-resistant varieties are used for outdoor work. The material is resistant to aggressive household chemicals, durable, dense, does not absorb water;
- bicotour - enamelled ceramic tiles are made using double firing, intended for interior decoration. The tile comes out porous, less durable than others, has a small weight, thickness, brown-red base. Produced in series of several colors;
- monoporosis - single burn method, pressing, glaze application. In the composition - clay with a large number of carbonates. The finished product usually has medium or large size, reduced strength, is used exclusively for interior work. The texture is often an imitation of marble, less often - light wood;
- clinker - burned once, made with or without enamel, multi-colored bases. It has high resistance to temperature fluctuations, abrasion. It is used for laying the floor in residential, office, factory, sports buildings, structures;
- Cotto - is available with a porous red base formed during the extrusion process. The material is very resistant to abrasives, has a high bending strength and compression. It is used as a floor covering in rooms, cladding of buildings, structures.
Also decorative tiles can be cast. In addition to ceramic, other types are widely used:
- glass - completely transparent or opaque, smooth, embossed or with bubbles;
- stone - completely natural, durable, suitable for decoration of expensive designer interiors;
- metal - looks very impressive, the material is very durable;
- PVC - can cost both cheap and expensive, can imitate any texture - bricks, boards, stone, etc.
On the properties of the tile material, its quality, the places of application should ask the seller, selling this product.
Variety of shapes, sizes
The shape of the tile used for kitchen decoration is usually a square, a rectangle, a rhombus, a pentagon, a hexagon, a triangle, an octagon. Less common are other options, often made to order in limited quantities.
In the kitchen, two or three types of porcelain tiles are most often combined, highlighting different zones. For the largest rooms, the largest is used - patterns, broken lines, “chess” are laid out of it, in order to visually lengthen the wall, a curb is made, a contrast apron is allowed, which is sometimes decorated with suitable stickers. To increase the height of the ceiling, rectangular tile laid vertically. In cramped kitchens, mosaic, wall mirror tiles are used, and light ceramic material is laid diagonally on the floor.
The most commonly used parameters are:
- 2.5 x 2.5 cm;
- 5x15 cm;
- 10x20 cm;
- 15x15 cm;
- 20x40 cm;
- 40x40 cm;
- 60 × 60 cm
The smaller the tiles, the greater the seams between them, the more complex the shape - the more laborious the installation will be, which should be thought of in advance.
Often from the small porcelain tiles lay out a whole panel, a colorful mosaic of composite materials. Laying on the floor in several ways:
- traditional - smooth parallel rows, suitable for seamless ceramic tiles;
- diagonal - a clear marking of the axes is required, it looks beautiful using square elements, significantly expands the space;
- "Herringbone" - fits according to the principle of parquet, "Herringbone with an attachment" is complemented by mosaics or other colors;
- offset - well hides minor defects, diversifies the lining;
- modular grid - "revive" a large room, but we need a drawing with all sizes.
Wall mounted in three ways - the usual, diagonally, with imitation of brickwork (horizontal or vertical).
Regardless of which layout is chosen, the finishing material is first laid on the floor, tried on the walls without glue to see how it looks.
Stylistic directions, color
A tile in one version or another is capable of decorating the interior of any style:
- Provence - light colors are preferable - white, light yellow, beige, details of a kitchen apron are made with thin lines of a flower ornament;
- classic - classic ceramics imitate natural leather, real stone - usually granite, marble, has a layered pattern;
- Scandinavian - the coating is made "under the tree", imitating parquet, boards of various breeds, it looks very rough;
- Loft - plates are made under the brickwork, texture elements, "hog", clinker are used;
- minimalism - large monochromatic porcelain tiles, mostly light or "pure" colors, intricate patterns are unacceptable;
- Japanese - mostly light, smooth elements, floral patterns, hieroglyphs on a kitchen apron, imitation of bamboo leaf are acceptable;
- Art Nouveau - one-colored tiles of several colors, preferably contrasting with each other;
- Arabic - a covering with patchwork elements is suitable - all tiles can be different or create such an impression;
- high-tech - wall, floor design imitates metal, stained glass, mirror surfaces;
- Slavic - walls or only a kitchen apron are decorated with tiles, Gzhel, tiles with Russian folk ornaments.
At the same time in the room it is recommended to use no more than two or three colors, the walls are decorated in brighter colors than the floor. The most fashionable, popular:
- ghostly white with sapphire;
- blue with pink;
- carrot red with cream;
- yellow with green;
- linen with snow-blue;
- light green with silver;
- light gray with black;
- blue with snow white;
- mauve with sand;
- beige with olive;
- apricot with fuchsia;
- coffee with milk;
- dark eggplant with gray;
- graphite with greenish brown;
- ocher with shale;
- tea green with emerald green;
- amethyst with light carmine.
Interior coloring depends on the area of the room. In a small kitchenette, measuring five to six meters square, with a window to the north, north-west, a seamless covering of warm, light shades is preferred. In a more spacious, bright, with windows facing south-east, south, dark, bright colors are allowed.
DIY Handling Rules
To decorate the walls, the floor with a uniform tile material, making a mix of several, easily with your own hands. How to step by step to make the kitchen lining yourself: first you need some tools:
- iron tape measure, square;
- simple pencil;
- level, rule;
- glass cutter;
- mixer or drill with a nozzle;
- tile cutter;
- wire cutters for tiles;
- Master OK;
- notched trowel, ordinary rubber;
- rubber mallet;
- sponge, rag, bucket;
- work gloves, knee pads.
- appropriate glue;
- crosses for marking;
- grout a suitable color scheme.
First, you need to prepare the foundation, which decided to veneer. It is cleaned of dirt, level, laying is made on concrete, old tile layer, chipboard, etc. When there are irregularities of more than five to six millimeters, the surface is poured with a leveling compound so that there are no sharp transitions, waiting for drying, the old coating is polished and ground.
After drawing the markup - immediately after drying. It is desirable to mark out so that you do not have to cut a lot of tile, trimming was hardly noticeable. Lines are marked with a laser level or cord, the corners should be straight, the tiles are laid using crosses. Glue is diluted according to the instructions, put where they marked the beginning of the very first row, level with a spatula with teeth. If the parts are very large, they are also coated with glue. Tile pressed to the floor, lightly tapping with a mallet. The row is aligned using the rule, level, insert crosses into corners. The cut tile is laid afterwards - it is cut with regard to the seam with the help of a tile cutter or a grinder. If you want to make a curved cut, glue masking tape is glued to the tile, drilled in the right places, to get a smooth line, cut off the excess with a nipper and grind.
When the coating is laid, wait a day and proceed to grout the joints - they are moistened with water, after which the trowel is applied with a rubber spatula. Thirty to forty minutes later, the excess is removed with a sponge moistened with water; after an hour the floor is washed with a soap solution. A week later, the seams are treated with sealant.
Wall ceramic tiles put on drywall, plaster. Walls align, ground. Laying produced from the bottom up - the space behind the kitchen set is usually not revetted to save. The bottom row is mounted directly above the baseboard or metal strip, nailed at the level of the countertop - if we are talking about a kitchen apron. Sliced fragments are mounted in unobtrusive places, corners, slopes are made out of plastic corners. Over the gas, electric stove apron stack to the hood.
If the floor is warm, it is heated one to two days before and three to four days after laying. It is recommended not to walk on the finished floor for the first three to seven days.
How to care
The care is quite simple, but it is carried out regularly. To clean from various types of pollution will need:
- a solution of ordinary soap;
- detergent against lime;
- tile splitting unit;
- antifungal medication if mold marks have appeared;
- a solution of vinegar, alcohol;
- steam cleaner;
- rubber gloves;
- dish sponge;
- textile napkins;
- toothbrush for cleaning joints.
It is not recommended to apply abrasive powders - on some surfaces they leave noticeable scratches. Before washing, the floor is vacuumed up, swept, the wall covering is regularly cleaned of grease, wiped from dust.
Making a tile with your own hands, if you have certain skills, is not difficult at all, relatively cheap, practical. Sometimes with different types of decorative tiles not only a stylish kitchen is made, but also an entrance hall, a living room, a bathroom, a fully-furnished studio apartment, converted from a small "Khrushchev-style". When it comes to more extensive spaces, there is no need to do without an assistant or even an entire team of professional craftsmen and dressers. There is a wide range of various porcelain tiles - from economy class to luxury, with original texture, photo printing.